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- ItemERROR ESTIMATION FOR COLLOCATION SOLUTION OF LINEAR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS(1986) A. H. AHMED; K. WRIGHTAl~ract--This paper is concerned with error estimates for the numerical solution of linear ordinary differential equations by global or piecewise polynomial collocation which are based on consideration of the differential operator involved and related matrices and on the residual. It is shown that a significant advantage may be obtained by considering the form of the residual rather than
- ItemASYMPTOTIC PROPERTIES OF COLLOCATION PROJECTION NORMS(Pergamon Press plc, 1990) A. H. A. AHMEDThis paper is concerned with the behaviour of certain eoUocation projection norms. It is shown that the norms of the piecewise collocation projection and the usual piecewise interpolating projection are asymptotically the same. A similar result is shown for the global ease if the collocation points are chosen as Tchebycheff zeros with some restrictions on the coefficients of the differential operator.
- Itemالصحة النفسية لدى أبو زيد البلخي(اتحاد الأطباء النفسيين العرب, 1993-11) الزبير بشير طهفي كتاب مصالح الأبدان والانفس تناول أبو زيد البلخي(236 - 320ه) أساسيات الصحه النفسيه في بدايتها أن الصحه النفسيه هي في الأساس التوافق بين النفس وميولها الداخليه ومهامها الخارجيه. ثم عرض البلخي الى أربعة انفعالات باعتبارها منشأ للمشكلات النفسيه : الغضب ، الخوف ، الحزن والوسواس مشيرا الى خصائصها النفسجميه ومبينا كيف أنها تؤثر وتتأثر بالصحة الجسميه. ثم افضي بعد ذلك الى عرض تكنيكات الارشاد والعلاج النفسي التي هي فيما يبدو مستمده من واقع ممارساته الاكلنيكيه موضحا كيف تؤدي هذه التكنيكات مفعولها - ويلاحظ في ذلك كله أولا : منهج البلخي الشمولي في التعامل مع الاعراض النفسجسميه .ثانيا : تبنيه للاتجاه المعرفي والمعرفي السلوكي في العلاج النفسي ثالثا : سبقه حتى في ذلك الزمن الغبر في استخدام اساليب الارشاد والعلاج المعتمدة في الوقت الراهن مثل اسلوب الازالة المنظمة واسلوب الكف المتبادل
- ItemCOMPUTABLE ERROR BOUNDS FOR COLLOCATION METHODS(1995) A. H. AHMEDThis paper deals with error bounds for numerical solutions of linear ordinary differential equations by global or piecewise polynomial collocation methods which are based on consideration of the involved differential operator, related matrices and the residual. It is shown that significant improvement may be obtained if direct bounds for the error in the solution are considered. The practical implementation of the theory is illustrated by a selection of numerical examples.
- ItemSocial Science And Medicine in The Sudan ; A Sociological Review(جامعة امدرمان الاسلامية, 1995) Mohammed Abdel Allah AlnagarbiWhere do social science and medicine come together? The presence of socialscientistisn medical settings is no longer as "unusual" as it was some decades before. In fact the extensive research in health and human behaviour throughout the world has highlighted the fact that the health action is but a social action. To begin with, there is a social system that can be described when one person does something to increase the health of another. The health actor in such a system may be o doctor, a chemist ot a water treatment plent, or a neighbour consulted about the baby's lack of apetite. The client may be a single patient, a family, a community, a nation, or the whole human species
- ItemEFFICACY OF ONCE-DAILY AMLODIPINE IN THE CONTROL OF 24-HOUR BLOOD PRESSURE USING AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING(1995-11-11) Hasan Abu-Aisha; SAMEER HURAIB; AKRAM ASKAR; JAMAL AL-WAKEEL; AHMAD MITWALLI; SULIMAN AL-MAJEDTo evaluate the efficacy, tolerance, and acceptance of once-daily amlodipine in the control of 24-hour blood pressure (BP), we conducted an open-label, uncontrolled trial in 20 patients (17 men and 3 women) with mild-to-moderate hypertension and without evidence of secondary hypertension except as a result of nephropathy. A 2-week washout placebo period was followed by a 12-week period of active treatment. The starting dose of amiodipine was 5 mg once daily; this was increased to 10 mg once daily if BP was not controlled within 6 weeks of starting treatment. Clinic and ambulatory BP measurements were obtained before starting active treatment (week 0) and then at 6 and 12 weeks after the start of treatment. The mean age (±SD) was 49.2 ± 13.7 years. Mean clinic systolic BP fell from 162.4 ± 15.4 mm Hg at week 0 to 136.8 ± 8.7 mm Hg at week 12. Clinic diastolic BP fell from 102.8 ± 5.1 mm Hg at week 0 to 81.3 ± 6.1 mm Hg at week 12, Ambulatory systolic BP fell from 147.8 ± 8.8 mm Hg at week 0 to 136.0 ± 10.6 mm Hg at week 12. Ambulatory diastolic BP fell from 90.4 ± 4.5 mm Hg at week 0 to 81.0 ± 5.0 mm Hg at week 12. There was a significant reduction in systolic BP between week 0 and week 6 (P -- 0.0001), as well as between week 0 and week 12 (P = 0.0008). Similarly, significant reductions were obtained in diastolic BP between week 0 and week 6 (P = 0.0002), as well as between week 0 and week 12 (P = 0.001). The drug amlodipine was well tolerated and well accepted by patients. The results indicate that monotherapy with amlodipine 5 mg once daily is effective in controlling BP over a 24-hour period.
- Itemتكييف وتقنين مقايس الذكاء في الثقافة العربية : تجربة من السودان(المنظمة العربية للتربية والثقافة والعلوم, 1995-12) عمر هارون الخليفة; الزبير بشير طه; اخلاص حسن عشرية
- ItemHigher Education and Development in the Sudan(The Eslamice Edueational, Screatilic and Cultural Qroanization [SESCG], 1998) Mohammed Abdel Allah AlnagarbiThe development of higher educiution inthe west direct related to ineiistry, professions cand teenrocrat was a reflection of the eceeurniz and technological changes swhiel took place im the west Thus tic legitimacy af universin: edlicctive was based on putfilling the professional expestetions of sc seeiety in addition ta the hureseristic aspirations of the post-Reacaiss.mece period. The extent to whieh tris lesitimizarion was sharply cleus oad wos an issue of much comrraversy
- Itemالتعليم العالي بالسودان وعلاقتة بالتنمية(وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي, 1999-08) Mohammed Abdel Allah Alnagarbi
- ItemTHE RESIDUAL AND THE ERROR FOR COLLOCATION METHODS(Hindawi Publishing Corp, 2001) A. H. AHMEDWe use earlier results on collocation matrices related to the solution and its derivatives in describing asymptotic relation between the error on the highest derivative and the residuals. That justifies the use of the form of the residual rather than its norm in measuring the error.
- ItemMissed Renal Infarction Presenting as the Nephrotic Syndrome: a Case Report(2002) Hassan Abu-Aisha; Nauman Tarif; Ahmed Hasan Mitwalli; Jamal Saleh Al-Wakeel; Pravin Chandra Patel; Saleh Ali Al-Smayer; Hani Kamal Najm; Abdoo QudsiAortic dissection may be associated with renal disease. The presentation, especially in the later stages of the process, includes proteinuria, hematuria and impairment of renal function. Thus the clinical picture may be confused with glomerulonephritis or hypertension. . We present a case of ischemic nephropathy resulting from involvement of the right kidney by an aortic dissection. The pateint presented with the nephrotic syndrome some two and a half months after the probable time when the aortic disection had occurred. At that time the initial back and flank pains had disappeared. Ultrasound examination revealed a smaller right kidney, compared to the left one. Imaging techneques, initaited for suspected renal artery stenosis, revealed aortic dissection involving the right renal artery starting from the descending aorta, distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery and extending down to the right common iliac artery; occluding the right renal artery. The medical literature is reviewed for patients presenting with ischemic nephropathy and the mechanisms of proteinuria discussed. We conclude that ischemic nephropathy can clinically mimic glomerulonephritis and can be missed if it is not included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with heavy proteinuria and hypertension.
- ItemGLOBALIZATION AND HEALTH OF THE POOR IN AFRICA(مجلة افاق سياسية, 2004) Mohammed Abdel Allah AlnagarbiChange is_ accelerating at an unprecedented rate: at present. Globalization is but one aspect of changed linking people's lives, more deeply, more intensely and more immediately than before. However, Globalization is a process integrating not just the economy, but culture technology and governance(1). It is now evident that the prevailing economic conditions, highly affected by the structural adjustment policies in most third world countries- result in a wakening of the health sector. Public- sector Drug budgets are often too small to procure low- cost, essential Drug for the sufficient quantities of population in need, yet these budgets can consume 30- 50 percent of the total health Expenditure of many third Drugs that reach the people is undeveloped(2).
- Itemالقيم والضوابط السائدة في العمل الاجتماعي في البلدان العربية (رصد وتفسير وتقويم)(مركز دراسات الشرق الأوسط وافريقيا, 2005-01) Mohammed Abdel Allah Alnagarbi
- ItemImmunochemotherapy of persistent post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: a novel approach to treatment(Elsevier, 2007) Ahmed Mudawi Musa; Eltahir Awad Gasim Khalil; Fawzi Abd Elrahim Mahgoub; Sara Hamad Hassab Elgawi; Farroukh Modabber; Abd Elgadir Mohamed Yousif Elkadaru; Mona Hussein Aboud; Sassan Noazin; Hashim Warsma Ghalib; Ahmed Mohamed El-HassanPost-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a recognized dermatosis that follows successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in the Sudan. This randomized and doubleblind study aimed to assess safety, immunogenicity and curative potentials of a novel immunochemotherapy regimen in patients with persistent PKDL. Following informed consent, 30 patients were randomized to receive alum-precipitated autoclaved Leishmania major (Alum/ALM) vaccine + Bacille Calmette-Gu´erin (BCG) and sodium stibogluconate (SSG) or vaccine diluent and SSG. The SSG+Alum/ALM+BCG proved safe with minimal local adverse events. In the SSG+vaccine group, 87% of the patients were cured by day 60 compared with 53% in the SSG alone group (SSG+vaccine efficacy = 71%, 95% CI for risk ratio 0.7—1.16). On day 90 of follow-up there were two relapses in the SSG alone arm and none in the SSG+vaccine arm. Pretreatment cytokines showed high IFN- or high IFN- /IL-10 levels and leishmanin skin test (LST) non-reactivity, while healing/clinical improvement were associated with LST reactivity and low
- ItemPatterns of "Severe Acute Renal Failure" in a referral center in Sudan: Excluding intensive care and major surgery patients(Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, 2007) Hasan Abu-Aisha; Babikir G. Kaballo; Mohamed S. Khogali; Eman H. Khalifa; Eltahir A. G. KhaIiI; Ahmed M. EI-HassanAcute renal failure (ARF) is a common health problem worldwide. There is limited data on the pattern of ARF in Sudan. Moreover, glomerular diseases, which are a well-known cause of ARF, have not been accurately and adequately diagnosed previously. A retrospective study on the patterns of ARF was carried out in a general nephrology referral center in Sudan during the period from February 2003-February 2004. Patients from intensive care units with ARF and those who developed ARF after massive surgery were excluded from the study. Renal biopsy was performed when indicated and studied with light and immunofluorescent microscopy. Eighty-nine patients (57 (64%) cases were males, and mean age was 39±19.4 years) fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of advanced renal failure requiring renal function replacement therapy. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was diagnosed in 50 (56%) patients; 33 (66%) ATN patients had renal failure as a complication of volume depletion, fulminant infections (particularly malaria and typhoid fever) or snakebites, and 12 (13.4%) patients ingested paraphenylene-diamine (PPD) (hair/Henna dye) in suicidal attempts. Eight (9%) patients of the total study group had glomerular diseases and 11 (12.3%) had obstructive uropathy associated with ARF; the cause of ARF could not be determined in 17 (19%) patients. Fifty-three (60%) patients recovered their renal function, six (6.7%) patients progressed to chronic kidney disease (CKD), 16 (18%) died and 14 (16%) were lost to follow-up. In conclusion, patients with ARF associated with ATN had a favorable prognosis except when ATN was associated with PPD poisoning.
- ItemEvaluation of Polymerase Chain Reaction for Direct Detection of Escherichia coli Strains in Environmental Samples(Academic Journals, 2007) Safa A. Sherfi; Hamid A. Dirar; Badr E. Hago; Mohamed E. Ahmed; Hassan A. Musa; Hassan Abu Aisha; Imadeldin E. AradaibThe potential of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), as a means of detecting Escherichia coli (E. col’) DNA in suspected environmental samples, was studied. Using a pair of outer primers Pl and P2, selected from wdA gene, which encodes £. coli glucuronidase, the PCR-based assay resulted in amplification of a 486 base pair (bp) PCR product. £. cofi strains from different environmental sources including recycled and drinking water as well as stagnant water were detected by this nested PCR-based assay. Amplification products were visualized on ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel. The sensitivity of the PCR assay was 100 fg of bacterial DNA with ethidium bromide-stained agarose gels. Using a pair of internal (nested) primers P3 and P4, the nested PCR produced a 186 bp PCR product. The nested PCR increased the sensitivity of the PCR assay by 1,000 times and specific PCR products were detected from 0.1 fg of bacterial DNA. Amplification product was not detected when the nested PCR-based assay was applied to DNA from other related bacteria including, Salmonella, Pseudomonas and Proteus or nucleic acid-free water. Application of this nested PCR-based assay to environmental samples resulted in direct detection of Z. coli DNA from sewage water, tap water, drinking water at Shambat Campus, University of Khartoum, Sudan. This nested PCR-based assay should provide a rapid, sensitive and specific assay for direct detection and quantification of £. cofi in environmental samples suspected to contain the organism.
- Itemبين صراع الحضارات وتعايشها مراجعه لكتاب قاي انكرل عن الحضارات المعاصرة المتعايشة(مركز التنوير المعرفي, 2007-04) Mohammed Abdel Allah Alnagarbi
- ItemRates and Causes of Peritonitis in a National Multicenter Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis Program in Sudan: First-year Experience(Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation, 2007-11) Hasan Abu-Aisha; Elwaleed A. Elhassan; Ammar H. Khamis; Haleema Fedail; Babikir Kaballo; M. Babbikir Abdelraheem; Tigani Ali; Safaa Medani; Layla Tammam; Ihsan Basheir2This is a cumulative report of all patients in six centers in Greater Khartoum, all three cities that comprise the capital of Sudan, covering the first year of operation of the National Program. This study evaluates the rates, mechanisms, causative agents and clinical outcomes of peritonitis. We included the data of all 60 patients who underwent CAPD from June 2005 to June 2006. There were 15 episodes of peritonitis in 323 patient-months, which equates to an overall peritonitis rate of one episode every 21.5 months (0.55 episodes per year at risk). The individual center rates varied. There was a statistically significant age difference, with peritonitis being more common in the youngsters. All patients presented with abdominal pain and had cloudy effluents but none had a significant exit site or tunnel infection. Fluid cultures were available in 11 out of the 15 episodes of peritonitis. The cultures were positive for organisms in only 3 out of 11 (27%) cases. Two patients were infected by Pseudomonas aerogenosa and one patient by Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, the culture-negative peritonitis rate was 8/11 (73%). Touch contamination was the likely mechanism in 7/15 (46.7%) of the episodes. There were three cases of refractory peritonitis and only one case of relapsing peritonitis. None of the patients had a catheter removed because of peritonitis. We conclude that the first year of operation of the Sudan National Multi-centered PD program has proven that it is a promising project with multifaceted success. The cumulative peritonitis incidence is acceptable although there are several areas for improvement. Standardized laboratory techniques need to be implemented and pursued, particularly in the microbiology area.
- ItemEncysted Fluid Collections after Catheter Removal for Peritonitis in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients(2008) Hasan Abu-Aisha; Elwaleed A M Elhassan; Maha A Hummeida; Osman-mahir M A Mahir; Hisham M Ali; Aymun I Mobarak; Jamal Abdel-Raheem; Um-Alhasan Mohamed; Hassan A MusaIntroduction: Peritonitis is a frequent complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). This case series describes episodes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) related fungal or Pseudomonas peritonitis that were complicated by the formation of encysted intra abdominal fluid collections despite prompt catheter removal and appropriate therapy. Case series: The first patient presented with fever and abdominal pain two weeks after removing his PD catheter because of fungal peritonitis. Examination revealed fluid collection in the former catheter tunnel. This turned out to be pus on surgical drainage. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed another extensive encysted extra-peritoneal fluid collection that was aspirated and found to be clear transudate fluid. The second patient presented with abdominal pain and distention seven weeks after removing her PD catheter because of fungal peritonitis. She had a large intra abdominal encysted fluid collection that was drained under ultra sound guidance. The third patient presented with painless abdominal distention one month after removing the PD catheter because of Pseudomonas peritonitis. He had two encysted extra peritoneal fluid collections that were aspirated under ultra sound guidance. This occurred despite three weeks of treatment with oral fluconazole in the case of the first two patients and appropriate antibiotic therapy in the case of the third patient. Conclusion: In fungal and Pseudomonas peritonitis, other measures besides immediate initiation of appropriate therapy and prompt removal of the catheter may be necessary to prevent such late complications. Suggested measures include continued intraperitoneal antibiotics by a fresh PD catheter, in addition to systemic antifungal treatment
- ItemRenal Replacement Therapy Resources in Africa(2008) Hasan Abu-Aisha; Aziz El Matri; Elwaleed AM ElhassanBackground: Africa is the world’s second-largest and most-populous continent. It is also the world’s poorest inhabited continent. Regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD), there are no reliable statistics in most African countries. However, there is a general impression that it is at least three to four times more frequent than in more developed countries Methods: a survey on renal replacement therapy in Africa was conducted in the context of the African Association of Nephrology (AFRAN) Congress 2007. A questionnaire was sent to leading African nephrologists, and data were also collected from the main dialysis supply companies and by personal communication. Data have been obtained from 32 out of 54 countries, representing 89% of the total population. Results: There are no reliable statistics regarding CKD in most African countries. The total number of nephrologists in the continent is 1154 (1-4 pmp). The total number of patients on hemodialysis (HD) is just over 60000 patients (<50 pmp in many countries). Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is only available in 12 African countries, and the total number of PD patients is around 2000. Renal transplantation is performed in 10 of the 53 countries, and only five countries have sustained programs that perform more than 50 cases per year. Conclusion: CKD is an under-recognized health challenge in Africa. Research should be encouraged to gauge the exact incidence and prevalence of CKD in African countries and define its regional risk factors. Efforts are needed to train physicians in this specialty, and strategies for judicious resources allocation should be implemented.