Patterns of "Severe Acute Renal Failure" in a referral center in Sudan: Excluding intensive care and major surgery patients

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Hasan Abu-Aisha
Babikir G. Kaballo
Mohamed S. Khogali
Eman H. Khalifa
Eltahir A. G. KhaIiI
Ahmed M. EI-Hassan
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Saudi Center for Organ Transplantation
Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common health problem worldwide. There is limited data on the pattern of ARF in Sudan. Moreover, glomerular diseases, which are a well-known cause of ARF, have not been accurately and adequately diagnosed previously. A retrospective study on the patterns of ARF was carried out in a general nephrology referral center in Sudan during the period from February 2003-February 2004. Patients from intensive care units with ARF and those who developed ARF after massive surgery were excluded from the study. Renal biopsy was performed when indicated and studied with light and immunofluorescent microscopy. Eighty-nine patients (57 (64%) cases were males, and mean age was 39±19.4 years) fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of advanced renal failure requiring renal function replacement therapy. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was diagnosed in 50 (56%) patients; 33 (66%) ATN patients had renal failure as a complication of volume depletion, fulminant infections (particularly malaria and typhoid fever) or snakebites, and 12 (13.4%) patients ingested paraphenylene-diamine (PPD) (hair/Henna dye) in suicidal attempts. Eight (9%) patients of the total study group had glomerular diseases and 11 (12.3%) had obstructive uropathy associated with ARF; the cause of ARF could not be determined in 17 (19%) patients. Fifty-three (60%) patients recovered their renal function, six (6.7%) patients progressed to chronic kidney disease (CKD), 16 (18%) died and 14 (16%) were lost to follow-up. In conclusion, patients with ARF associated with ATN had a favorable prognosis except when ATN was associated with PPD poisoning.
Kaballo, B.G., Khogali, M.S., Khalifa, E.H., KhaIiI, E.A., Ei-Hassan, A.M. and Abu-Aisha, H., 2007. Patterns of" Severe Acute Renal Failure" in a referral center in Sudan: Excluding intensive care and major surgery patients. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, 18(2), p.220.