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Now showing 1 - 5 of 9
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    Genetic variation among Sudanese Leishmania donovani origin and evolution
    (Napata College, 2022-04) S.H. Hamad; A.M. Musa; E.A.G. Khalil
    Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread severe disease, with an increasing incidence of two million cases per year, and 350 million people from 88 countries at risk. The causative agents are species of Leishmania, a protozoan flagellate. Visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated, is caused by species of the Leishmania donovani complex. These species are morphologically indistinguishable but have been identified by molecular methods. This study aimed to explore intra specific diversity among Sudanese L. donovani strains and compare it to Ethiopian and Indian strains. Methods: In this study Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to detect intra specific diversity for the Leishmania donovani in ninety five L.donovani isolates collected from eastern Sudan. Results& Discussion: this study found three different genotypes of Sudanese strains. The similarity between Sudanese strains and Ethiopian and Indian reference strains was measured. Diversity among Sudanese genotypes and the detection of one genotype closely related to the Indian and Ethiopian genotype: led to an evolutionary hypothesis for the origin and dispersal of the species. This proposes that the genus Leishmania may have originated in eastern Sudan. Conclusion: Leishmania donovani isolates from Sudan are genetically diverse. This parasite 4 Napata Scientific journal- issue One- March 2022 could be the ancestor of the leishmania parasites, and its distribution started from Sudan to all of the worlds.
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    Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Ziziphus spina-christi (L.)Leaves extracts
    (Napata College, 2022-04) Yasmin Hassan Elshiekh
    This study aimed to explore the phytochemical profile, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts. Plate agar diffusion method was used to assess the antimicrobial activity of these extracts using four bacterial species; two Gram positive; Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, two Gram negative; Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and two fungal species; Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The methanol extract showed a significantly higher antibacterial activity in comparison to the other extracts. No antifungal activity was detected in this research with all extracts of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves.
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    Phytochemical Analysis of Ethanolic Extracts of Three Sudanese Tribulus species
    (Napata College, 2022-04) Z. A. Hilmi; H. H. EL-Kamali; A. M. Aldai
    This study aims to explore the phytochemically bioactive compounds of three Sudanese Tribulus species. Threewild species of Tribulus; T. terrestris, T.longipetalous and T.pentandrus,were collected from KhartoumState. Their bioactive compounds were extracted by ethanol, from their roots, aerial parts, and fruits. Gas-Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GCMS) was used for phytochemical analysis of their bioactive compounds.In T. terrestris different compounds (20 from roots), (27 from aerial parts) & (29 from fruits) were identified by GC/MS. Six classes of chemical compounds were found; sugars, fatty acids, terpenes, steroids, alkanes and alcohols. Major components were sucrose (28.72%) in roots and 4-O-methyl-mannose in aerial parts (49.60%) and in fruits (43.66%). In T.longipetalous many compounds were identified; 23 from roots, 20 from aerial parts, and 29 from fruits. These compounds were classified into four groups; Sugars, fatty acids, terpenes alcohols. The most commonly detected compound was 4-O-methyl mannose; 73.11% (in roots), 43.24% (in aerial parts) and 35.75% (in fruits). In T.pentandrus more compounds were identified, 31 (roots), 31 (aerial parts) and 42 from fruits. These compounds were grouped into eight classes; sugars, fatty acids, terpenes, steroids, alkanes, alcohols, steroidal sapogenins and alkaloids. The major component also was 4-O-methylmannose 47.86 % (in roots), 44.75 % (in aerial parts) and 55.05 % (in fruits).The most commonly found classes of compounds in the three Tribulus species were; sugars, fatty acids, terpenes, steroids and alcohols. The major compound found in all parts of the three Tribulus species was 4-O-methylmannose. In addition other compounds were identified from T.pentandrus
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    Somebody relationships in 15 populations of two Nile Cichlids in the Sudan.
    (Napata College, 2022-04) O.M. Omer; A.H Abdalla; E A. Hagar; Z.N. Mahmoud
    Background: The objective of this work is to quantify the body weight, body depth and standard length relationship of Oreochromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galilaeus from the Nile and its tributaries to find out the population of best traits. Methods: Fish body weight was recorded to 0.1gm using an electronic field balance. The standard length and body depth were measured using a measuring tape to the nearest cm. Results: The standard length-body weight relationship of O. niloticus and S. galilaeus 15 populations, was significant (p<0.05 top<0.001), except for S. galilaeus populations from Wad Medani and Shendi (p>0.05). The growth mode of the different populations of O. niloticus and S. galilaeus ranged from negative allometric, isometric to positive allometric.The standard length-body depth relationship of O. niloticus and S. galilaeus was mostly significant (p<0.05 top<0.001 Conclusions: The study concluded that there is a relatively high level of polymorphism and genetic diversity within and between O. niloticus and S. galilaeus and a comparatively high overall interspecies pair wise divergence. The population of O. niloticus from Al Kalakla is quite different from other populations, and thus can be recommended for improvement of other tilapias varieties.