Genetic variation among Sudanese Leishmania donovani origin and evolution

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S.H. Hamad
A.M. Musa
E.A.G. Khalil
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Napata College
Introduction: Leishmaniasis is a geographically widespread severe disease, with an increasing incidence of two million cases per year, and 350 million people from 88 countries at risk. The causative agents are species of Leishmania, a protozoan flagellate. Visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated, is caused by species of the Leishmania donovani complex. These species are morphologically indistinguishable but have been identified by molecular methods. This study aimed to explore intra specific diversity among Sudanese L. donovani strains and compare it to Ethiopian and Indian strains. Methods: In this study Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to detect intra specific diversity for the Leishmania donovani in ninety five L.donovani isolates collected from eastern Sudan. Results& Discussion: this study found three different genotypes of Sudanese strains. The similarity between Sudanese strains and Ethiopian and Indian reference strains was measured. Diversity among Sudanese genotypes and the detection of one genotype closely related to the Indian and Ethiopian genotype: led to an evolutionary hypothesis for the origin and dispersal of the species. This proposes that the genus Leishmania may have originated in eastern Sudan. Conclusion: Leishmania donovani isolates from Sudan are genetically diverse. This parasite 4 Napata Scientific journal- issue One- March 2022 could be the ancestor of the leishmania parasites, and its distribution started from Sudan to all of the worlds.
Hamad, S.H., Musa, A.M. and Khalil, E.A.G., 2022. Genetic variation among Sudanese Leishmania donovani: origin and evolution.