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    The Role of Cytological Methods in Evaluate Urine of Sudanese Patients with Renal Failure
    (International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research, 2021-08) Enas Jafar Yousif; Hadeel Hatim Mubarak; Alia Abdelrahman Eshag; Alkhair Abd Almahmoud Idris
    Renal failure is a major health problem in Sudan and each year the number of patients is increasing. Aim: To determine the cytological changes of urinary tract cells among patients suffering from renal failure. Materials and methods: This was descriptive laboratory based study conducted in Khartoum State. A random sample of 85 urine samples were taken from (all ages and both sexes) patients with renal failure lives in Khartoum; the remaining 35 samples was taken from health population as control. Questionnaire containing essential patient identification data was used. Results and discussion: Statistical analysis showed that there was significant statistical association between age, gender, medical history of chronic disease and type of renal failure (acute or chronic) to chronic changes in urinary tract cytology in terms of bacterial, Candida, Trichomonas infections (P-value < 0.05). Conclusion: We conclude that our study highlighted the role of urine cytology as screening tool for patients with renal failure as adjusted method to other clinical investigations. The inflammation and infection, bacterial, parasitic or fungal are the most common.
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    The expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Ki67 in Correlation to Stage of Breast Cancer
    (International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research, 2021-08) Mohammed Ismail Idreis Adam; Alkhair Abd Almahmoud Idris; Mohamed Abdelgader Elsheikh
    Breast cancer (BC) is a common malignant neoplasm comprising a large heterogeneous group of cancers with variable histological type, biological and clinical characteristics. Aim: This study was aimed to detect over expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and Ki67 in correlation to stage of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: This was descriptive cross sectional hospital based study conducted in Radiation &Isotopes –Center of Khartoum (RICK). Included Sudanese women with breast cancer during the period between (October 2020 To January 2021). Purposive sampling techniques was used in this study included 50 subject, from each tissue sample paraffin block was prepared two paraffin sections it was cut into 3μm thickness section floated into preheated floating water bath at 40˚c, two sections were placed in coated glass slide for Immunohistochemistry, one section was placed in clean microscopical slide for Hematoxylin and Eosin , incubated in oven at 58˚c. Results: The study results revealed that expression of VEGF in invasive ductal carcinoma was showed positive staining reaction in 14 cases (28%). No expression of VEGF was reported in 4 cases of stage I, in 7 out of 32 cases of stage II, and in all 7 cases out of 7 of stage III .There was significant positive correlation between VEGF expression and the stage of tumor (p value <0.000), and a higher proportion of cases were found in stage II and III. There was significant positive correlation between VEGF expression and Ki67(p value <0.000). Conclusion: This study concluded that there was relationship between VEGF expression and cancer stage and Ki67 expression. Recommendations: The study recommends that further study with more sample size is required.
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    Immunoexpression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor among Sudanese Patients with Bladder Cancer
    (International Journal of Academic Health and Medical Research, 2021-09) Changjowk Peter Lai AKER; Mohammed Abdelgader Elsheikh MOHAMMED; Elsadig Ahmed ADAM; Alkhair Abd Almahmoud Idris
    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a signaling protein which is important for formation of the circulatory system and growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature. Cancers that can express VEGF are able to grow and metastasize, because many solid cancers require an adequate blood supply to grow beyond the limited size. Aim: To determine the Immunoexpression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor among Sudanese Patients with Bladder Cancer. METHODOLOGY: This was an analytical cross-sectional study, included forty patients with (TCC); study patients from different Histopathology laboratories in Khartoum state- Sudan, VEGF was detected by using IHC method. RESULTS: VEGF immunoexpression was reported positive in 20 out of 40 patients (50%), the study conducted that; there was an association of VEGF immunoexpression and higher tumor grade of (TCC) as the frequency of VEGF expression was 16 out of 27 patients (59.2%) with high grade, while the frequency of VEGF expression was 4 out of 13 patients of low grade (30.8%) P value = 0.010. CONCLUSSION: according to obtained results we concluded that; the, there was a significant association between VEGF and bad prognosis of (TCC).
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    Evaluation of the Effect of Three Local Methods on Treatment of Contaminated Water in Rural Area in Sudan
    (International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research, 2021-08) Nazar Abdelaziz El Nasri; Alkhair Abd Almahmoud Idris; Reem Hassan Hussein; Shahinaz IbrahimElnaim
    Water contamination was playing a major role in the health hazards. Scientific verification for some natural methods used to treat water is still limited. Aim: This laboratory based study aimed to evaluate the effect of Broad bean seed (vicia faba), Fenugreek seed (Trigonela foenum gracium) and Zir in treatment of contaminated water. Materials and methods: One sample of water from Gabarona Camp in West Omdurman was examined for Physical, Chemical and microbial parameters before and after treatment with Broad bean seed, Fenugreek seed and stored in Zir in different duration of times for 5, 10,15,30,45 and 60 minutes . Results: The addition of Fenugreek, Broad bean seeds and storage in Zir lead to partially reduction of Physical characteristics of water. The results of chemical analysis of GWTBB, GWTF and GWTZ, showed that total dissolved salts (TDS) were ranged from (520-900 mg/l). After treatment with the Fenugreek, Broad bean and Zir the level of Total hardness was improved to minimum of 50, 45, and 48 at 60 min respectively. The reduction in total hardness and total dissolve salts for GWBB, GWTF and GWTZ was found to be statically differences (p≤0.05). The addition of Broad bean and storage in Zir reduced water fluoride content at 5 min to 1.3 mg/l, 1.5 mg/l. respectively. While treated water using Fenugreek exhibited lower reduction from 1.7 mg/l to 1.3 mg/l at 60 minutes. The MPN of untreated water sample was (440). The results indicate a reduction in the microbial load in GWTF, GWTBB and GWTZ by increased time duration of treatments. Our results showed that these common local methods for treatment of water slightly reduced the microbial, chemical and physical contamination of water.
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    Cytomorphological Pattern of Urine among Sudanese Patients with Urinary Tract Stone in Shendi Locality
    (International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research, 2021-09) Mohammed Abdelgader Elsheikh Mohammed; Mahmoud Ibrahim Osman HamadKhalfalla; Alkhair Abd Almahmoud Idris; Rayan Jaffer Mohammed Khalfalla; Samia Abduelaziz Hassan Bashir; Adan Tagaldeen Ahmed Almsaadd; TasneemMutasimYousifFedlemola
    Background: Urinary calculi can induce urothelial cellular abnormalities comparable with those of malignancy. Aim: To detect the Cytomorphological Pattern of Urine in Patients with Urinary Tract Stone among Sudanese patients in Shendi Locality. Materials and methods: This was descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Shendi locality –River Nile State-Sudan, samples were collected from different blocks. Then the collected samples were transferred to Histopathology lab where they processed and stained. A questionnaire for collection demographic data was performed with every participant. Results: The cytological changes in voided urines were analysed from cases and controls, 35 urine samples were taken from each group. Cytological changes were detected in (25/35) 71.4% among cases, and (0/35) 0.00% in controls. No malignancy was seen in all samples. Dyskaryosis in urine cytology revealed that, (12/35) 34.2% of cases with dyskaryosis, while no sample of controls contain dyskaryosis. Cellular atypia was detected in (19/35) 54.2% in the cases and 0/35 0.00% in controls. Metaplasia was detected in (19/35) 54.2% in cases and 0/35 (0.00%) in controls. Features of urinary tract infection were detected in (17/35) 48.5 % in cases and (3/35) 8.57% in controls. Chronic Inflammation conditions were detected in (14/35) 40% of case, (1/35) 2.85% of controls, while acute inflammation present in (8/35) 22.8% of cases and (1/35)2.85%.of controls.Conclusion: Urinary tract stone are more common in peoples live in Shendi town than people's lives in surrounding areas and Metaplasia is the most common cytological changes.