Issue 2

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Now showing 1 - 5 of 8
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    Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich Fruits
    (Napata College, 2022-07) Elshiekh Y.H; Alnoor G.H; Hussein S.E; Abdalrhman M.I; Rahmtalla H.A
    Background: This current study was carried out to investigate possible antibacterial; antioxidant activities and phytochemical screening of Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and 70% ethanol extract of Xylopia aethiopica. Materials & Methods: Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract was performed to detect the presence of different kinds of phytoconstituents. The antibacterial activity was investigated against five standard microbial strains: four bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and one standard strain of fungi (Candida albicans) by using the disc diffusion method. Results: All extracts showed high, moderate or weak antimicrobial activity against all the strains used. Antioxidant activity showed that, the ethanol extract was the most active extract (60±0.07) in comparison to the other extracts. Conclusion: Phytochemical screening showed the presence and absence of the secondary metabolites among the entire sample tested.
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    Design of Multi-Epitope Vaccine from Nipah Virus proteome using Immunoinformatics approach
    (Napata College, 2022-07) Zaki E.A; Mohamed S.B; Hamad S.H; Ali S.S
    Background: Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus of the paramyxovirus family that sporadically breaks out from livestock and human. Annual review of diseases prioritized under the R&D WHO Blueprint listed the Nipah virus as one of the emerging infectious diseases requiring urgent research and development effort. Moreover, there is a major layback in the development of effective vaccines or drugs against NiV. The aim of this study is to design a non-toxic and potent multi-epitope vaccine against NiV using bioinformatics approach. Materials & Method: In this study, T and B-cell epitopes of NiV protein were predicted and screened based on the antigenicity, toxicity, allergenicity and IFN induction features. The epitopes were linked by suitable linkers. Four different adjuvants were attached to the vaccine constructs, then secondary and the 3D structure of the vaccines was predicted. The refinement process was performed to improve the quality of the 3D model structure; the validation process performed using the Ramachandran plot. The designed vaccines binding affinity to HLA molecules, TLR 8 and TLR were evaluated by molecular docking, and select the best docking score for all vaccines against TLR8. Finally, in silico gene cloning was performed in the pET28a (+) vector. Result: The proposed vaccine was shown to be antigenic in VaxiJen server, non-allergenic in Allertop server and non-toxic in Toxinpred server. Thephysiochemical properties of the vaccine showed constructed vaccines stable and can be soluble overexpression.Regarding MHC-I, predicted epitopes for studied proteins (G, FG, M, N, P, L, V and W) ranged from 6 to 52, with an IC50 from 1 to 100, while in MHC-II, predicted epitopes ranged from 1 to 61 with an IC50 1 to 500. Vaccine tertiary structure was predicted, refined and validated to assess the stability of the vaccine via Ramachandran plot. Moreover, solubility of the vaccine construct was greater than the average solubility provided by protein SOL and SOLpro servers. Disulfide engineering was performed to reduce the high mobile regions in the vaccine to enhance stability which was predicted for the vaccines constructed, except L proposed vaccine which was dispensed. Docking of the vaccine construct with TLR8 showed the best binding energy with all proposed vaccines, TLR8 ligand result was taken for all next studies. Immune-simulation significantly provided high levels of immunoglobulins, T-helper cells, T-cytotoxic cells and INF-γ. Upon cloning, the vaccine protein was reverse transcribed into DNA sequence and cloned into pET28a (+) vector to ensure translational potency and microbial expression. Conclusion: The overall results of the study proved that the multi- epitope construct is a potential candidate for an efficient protective vaccine against NiV. The immunoinformatics approaches accelerate vaccine development process to reduce the risk of in vitro pre-clinical trials.
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    Association of Serum Lipid Profile Levels in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients with Cardiovascular Disease a case control study, Khartoum State
    (Napata College, 2022-07) Mohammed M.A; Mohammed I.A; Ismail A.M; Ali A.M; Dafaalla M.H; Mohammed R.K; Edris S.M; Ali S.Y; Nourallah S.A; Abdalla I.A; Mohamed E.A; Mohamed A.A; Ali A.O; Alnil A.H
    Background: The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing rapidly worldwide and has become a major health problem and most of these patients die due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) before progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, poor cardiovascular outcomes in CKD patients have prompted nephrologists to look for biomarkers that may improve risk stratification in this population. The objective of this study was to evaluate serum lipid profile levels in CKD patients and to determine their association with cardiovascular diseases. Materials & Methods: This analytical case control study was conducted at Ibnsina and Military hospitals in the period from February 2016 to March 2019, (n = 150) clinically diagnosed CKD patients (age range between 22 - 76 years, 105 males and 45 females), and 150 healthy subjects were included as controls. Serum lipid profile and serum creatinine were estimated by Cobas C-311® fully automated analyzer, hemoglobin by Sysmix, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated by Cocroft-Gault formula and blood pressure was measured by using mercuric sphygmomanometer. Results:The results of the current study indicated that, the means of total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-C, creatinine, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and body mass index (BMI) were significantly (P-value ≤0.05) higher in CKD patients when compared with that of controls, while HDL-C, hemoglobin and GFR were significantly (P-value ≤0.05) lower. Moreover, serum SBP and DBP were significantly (P-value ≤0.05) higher in CKD patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) than CKD patients without CVD, while the means of cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, BMI and creatinine were insignificantly (P-value ˃0.05) increased, meanwhile the mean of HDL-C, GFR and hemoglobin were insignificantly (P-value ˃0.05) decreased. In addition there is insignificant increase in the means of TG, LDL-C, BMI, SBP, DBP, creatinine and hemoglobin, and insignificant decrease in the mean of cholesterol, HDL-C and GFR in male when compared with female in CKD patients. Conclusion:dyslipidemia (high levels of cholesterol, TG, LDL-C and low levels of HDL-C) was higher in patients with CKD. Thus, the lipid profile levels were strongly associated with cardiovascular events in patients who have CKD and are on maintenance hemodialysis (HD).
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    Changes in the degree of ventricular hypertrophy following administration of Losartan potassium compared to L-NAME (L – Arginine Methyl Ester)
    (Napata College, 2022-07) Muhanad S A; Abdelwahab H M; Osman K A
    Background: The main goal of the study is to investigate the effect of Losartan on the degree of heart hypertrophy compared to L-NAME, also is this changes associated with redistribution of the left ventricular MHCs ratio? Methods: forty six white adult Swiss mice CD1 (weight range between 18g and 33g, and their ages range between 8-10 weeks) were used in this study. Animals were distributed randomly into four groups, each consist of eleven mice as follows: Control group left without treatment during the whole period of the study, group A ( given 600mg/L of L-NAME) , group B (given Losartan potassium 1g/L and L-NAME 600mg/L), and group S ( given 1g/L of Losartan potassium). All treatment were mixed with the drinking water , and given for 35 days. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate - Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used for the separation of the ventricular myocin heavy chains. Results: Administration of Losartan either alone or in combination with L-NAME cause’s significant decreases in the HW/BW ratio with P values 0.000 &0.000 respectively, and this reduction in the degree of the heart hypertrophy shows a shift in α: β ratio towards β LVMHCs compared to control (P values 0.000 &0.001 respectively). While L-NAME treatment in the group A cause’s marginal insignificant increase in HW/BW ratio, P values 0.054, with shifting of α: β MHCs ratio towards β LVMHCs compared to control P values 0.019 . Conclusion: L-NAME treatment changed the LVMHCs from alpha to beta, and this changing occurs before left ventricular hypertrophy. Also treatment with Losartan either alone or in combination with L-NAME produced a shift in the α: β ratio towards β LVMHCs with a decrease in the HW/BW ratio
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    Variables affecting compliance of diabetic patients with their respective Management Protocol at Ribat University Hospital, Khartoum – Sudan 2021
    (Napata College, 2022-07) Osman R.I; EzzaldeinR.B; Osman N.B; Rashid.M.S
    Background: This study attempts to investigate the variants affecting diabetic patients compliance to their diabetic management protocols, such as their level of awareness towards their treatment being much more than just medications to be taken, but rather an overall package of medication and life-style changing, and their level of willingness to change in order to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with diabetes. Objectives: To determine the level of compliance of diabetic patients to their respective treatment protocol at Ribat University Hospital in Khartoum, Sudan 2021, and the variants affecting such compliance. Materials & Tools: This is meant to be a Cross sectional facility based study with total sample sizeis101, random systemic sampling was used to select the participants for this research, data was collected using self-made questionnaires, and the data was analyzed using an SPSS based cross tabulation analysis. Results: The overall compliance rate in this study was 63%. Females were found to be more significantly compliant (P value <0.05) in comparison to males. Married individuals also had a better compliance (P value <0.05) in comparison to single, widowed, or divorced individuals. There was also, a statistically significant relationship between higher educational levels and compliance rate, p value of (<0.001) the higher education level was linked with a better compliance level. Middle and higher socio-economic statuses (SES) diabetic patients had higher compliance rates. Middle SES had a p value of <0.04, and wealthier classes had a p value of 0.05 respectively, while lower socio-economic groups had significantly lower compliance levels. Age groups>66 years was shown to be statistically significant in regards compliance (p value 0.05) in comparison to younger age groups. No significant relationship was found between compliance and co-morbidities. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of conduction of awareness raising campaign regarding the importance of patient’s compliance to these protocols.