Prevalence of dengue fever virus antibodies and associated risk factors among residents of El-Gadarif state, Sudan

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Hassan AbuAisha
Mawahib H. Eldigail
Gamal K. Adam
Rabie A. Babiker
Fatima Khalid
Ibrahim A. Adam
Osama H. Omer
Mohamed E. Ahmed
Sara L. Birair
Eltahir M. Haroun
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Background: Dengue fever, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has become one of the most important mosquitoborne viral diseases with a steady rise in global incidence, including the Sudan. Sporadic cases and frequent acute febrile illness outbreaks, compatible with Dengue fever, have been reported in El-Gadarif State, Sudan. However, diagnosis was based almost exclusively on clinical signs without confirmatory laboratory investigations. Despite the magnitude of the problem in El-Gadarif State, no information is currently available with regard to the epidemiology of the disease in this State. El-Gadarif State is one of the largest commercial centers in the Sudan. The objective of the present investigation is to estimate the prevalence of DENV antibodies, and determine the potential risk factors associated with seropositivity among residents of El-Gadarif State. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a total of 701residents randomly selected from all 10 localities in El-Gadarif State. The sera from the 701 residents were tested for the presence of DENV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies using a commercially available Anti-dengue IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Among the 701 residents, 334 residents (47.6%) were seropositive for DENV. Mosquito control (OR = 2.73, CI = 1.37–5.87, p-value = 0.001); low income (OR = 2.31, CI: 1.71–6.36, p value = 0.032); sleeping out-doors (OR = 3.73, CI = 2.63–6.23, p-value = 0.013), and localities were determined as potential risk factors for contracting DENV infection. Conclusions: The prevalence rate of DENV antibodies among residents of El-Gadarif State is significantly high (47.6%). Further epidemiologic studies including, distribution of mosquito vectors and implementation of improved surveillance are urgently warranted for better prediction and prevention of a possible DENV outbreak in El-Gadarif State, Sudan.
Eldigail, M.H., Adam, G.K., Babiker, R.A., Khalid, F., Adam, I.A., Omer, O.H., Ahmed, M.E., Birair, S.L., Haroun, E.M., AbuAisha, H. and Karrar, A.E., 2018. Prevalence of dengue fever virus antibodies and associated risk factors among residents of El-Gadarif state, Sudan. BMC public health, 18(1), pp.1-8.