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    The top 5 emergency drugs used in 2020 in dental practice; A systemic review
    (Napata College, 2020) Monzir Salim Alzareef; Mussab Aboubakr Abdallah
    Introduction: Although medical emergencies in dental practice is a rather uncommon occurrence in routine dental practice, however, life-threatening emergencies can and do occur at any moment. Certain drugs are used in such conditions. With that being said, the practicing dentist should be familiar with their indications, dosages, routes of administration and the side (adverse) effects. Methodology: This is an analytical, quantitative systematic review study (known to some as a review article) that was conducted in the Republic of the Sudan by students at the school of dentistry at Napata College. This review is meant to discuss the top 5 emergency drugs used in dental practice and their indications, dosages, routes of administration as well as their side effects. To write this paper, we inserted a plethora of keywords associated with the topic at hand. A number of researches were excluded as they were inaccessible to us, unrelated to the topic or because they were relatively anachronistic. Following this, we were left with a total of 9 papers, the findings of which are illustrated hereabouts. Results: the 5 most common recommended drugs are: Nitroglycerin (6), Salbutamol (6), Epinephrine (Adrenaline) (5), Oxygen (4), Aspirin (4), Oral glucose (4). The justification as to why more than 5 drug are listed is available in the full thesis. Conclusion: In conclusion, our research has indicated an alarming lack of training in dealing with emergencies, an alarming lack of preparedness for emergencies when and if they manifest themselves as well as a lack of availability of drugs that would aid in the management of these emergencies. Recommendation: 1) Introduction of emergency courses in higher education institutes teaching dentistry. 2) Introduction of legislation which requires dentists to possess, at the very minimum, the 5 aforementioned drugs in their practices as well as knowledge of how to use them. 3) Introduction of legislation which would require dentists see to it that the drugs they possess are not expired. 4) Introduction of legislature that would require dentists attend ‘emergency 101’ courses at least once every 5 years. 5) Introduction of an evaluation test in which dentists’ abilities to handle emergencies are evaluated. This test is to be taken whenever a dentist graduates and is about to practice and henceforth at least once every half a decade. 6) Requiring every conference of dentistry worldwide to have, at the very minimum, at least one poster discussing emergencies.
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    Knowledge, attitude and practices relative to oral cancer among Dentists in Khartoum State, Sudan
    (Napata College, 2020) وفاء مھدي خلف لله عطا المنان; دعاء عبد الرازق السید علي كرار
    Background: Oral cancer affects the lip, tongue and other parts of the oral cavity. The stage at which oral cancer is diagnosed is a major determinant of mortality and morbidity following treatment. No single factor has been identified as the causative agent but, there are a number of high-risk factors that have been associated with oral cancer such as tobacco (smoking or chewable), alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), genetic mutation and die. Objective: This study conducted to investigate the knowledge of dentists regarding the risk factors, clinical aspects about oral cancer in Khartoum state, Sudan. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at Khartoum state, Sudan. A valid questionnaire was distributed via electronic link to the participants.100 dentists in hospitals and clinics in Khartoum state were participated in current study. Results: Out of 100 dentists, 67 were females and 33 were males. Regarding the specialty of participants the majority were GP (62). Oral & maxillofacial surgeon and Restorative dentist were the most specialty participated after GP. Most of them were less than 5 years of experience. About 93 of them selected Squamous cell carcinoma as most common cancer affect the oral cavity.Most of our participants think that the most common risk factor is habits as tobacco. Also leukoplakia has been chosen mostly as most common oral precancerous disorders. Conclusion: Assessing dentists’ knowledge is one way to measure their performance. This study identified gaps in knowledge among dentists practicing in the Khartoum State, Sudan which strongly suggested that dentists need to increase their knowledge about oral cancer. More continuing education programs on risk factors and diagnosis of oral cancer should be organized to train dentists. Oral cancer screening should be a routine procedure for the high risk patients at the primary oral health care centers in Sudan.
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    Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice to Infection Control Among the Final Dental Students in the Khartoum stat
    (Napata College, 2020) Abdelaziz A Hassan; Shimaa A Jobara
    Background: Infection is one of the most crucial problems in health care services worldwide. It is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality associated with clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitude and practices with recommended infection control guidelines among final dental students in Khartoum University, AL-Raze University, AL-Nilain University, National Ribat University, University of Medical Sciences and Technology and Bayan College. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Knowledge, attitude and practices of the final dental students regarding infection control measurements. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain information regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices with recommended infection control guidelines. The sample (n = 186) of final dental students in both male and female. This questionnaire contained three parts and was distributed to the participants online. After validation of the survey, data were collected, entered and analyzed by SPSS software. Data collection: Tool: Self-administered questionnaire consisted of “23” close-ended questions. It was being administrated to “186” dental students to answer in a time of 20-minutes. The questionnaire was sent to all students and interns by email to be filled electronically and informed consent was obtained before commencing the questionnaire. Data analysis: The collected data will be analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 for windows. General characteristics of subject articles will be analyzed using frequency and percentage. Results: Regarding the subject’s attitudes toward infection control, the present study indicated that the, most of the students (90.3% - 81.7%) cared about protective parries (gloves, face mask). However, they were less concern about using other protective items (73.1% face shield, 72.1% gown and 52.6% head cap). Also, the findings of the present study indicated a very low rate of HBV vaccination. Only 72.7% of the students were vaccinated against Hepatitis B. In our survey, only 32.3% of students who were immunized have reported post-HBV immunization serology. In order to facilitate better understanding on how to evaluate awareness on infection control amongst final dental students, several questions related to previous education in infection control during the graduate studies were included in the questionnaire. The findings of this study showed insufficient knowledge among the subjects. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate insufficient attitude and awareness toward infection control. Subjects responses showed deficiency of education to support infection control measures and their self-assessment and satisfaction reflect their performance toward infection control policy. The deficit of knowledge could be due to the inadequacy of infection control educational materials during years of study. Another reason might be the lack of belief that practice of standard precautions may interfere with patient health and care. Recommendation: It is recommended that the findings would be useful for planning and implementation of future interventions, including a national survey of dental institutions across the country.
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    Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Oral Hygiene for Intensive Care Unit Patients in Khartoum State at Governmental Hospital, 2020_2021
    (Napata College, 2020) Emad Abdelakareem; Mazin Babiker
    Oral care is a vital procedure for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Oral care may affect the clinical result as well as the wellness of intensive care patients. Adequate knowledge about oral nursing care guideline is important for nurses to deliver appropriate oral care. A descriptive cross sectional hospital based study was conducted aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of intensive care nurses regarding oral care in critically ill patients in seven governmental Hospitals, Khartoum State, Sudan,(2020-2021). The sample size consisted of 95 nurses in ICUs. Data were collected using interview questionnaire; data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results revealed that (65.3%) of nurses with 1-3 years of experience. (63.2%) of participants responded with correct answers regarding definition of dental plaque, only 4.2% knew that gingivitis is a gum disease. 24.2% said gingivitis is due to plaque. (64.2%) of participants knew that periodontitis is an Inflammation of tooth supporting structure, 24.2% said plaque is the cause of periodontitis. (57.9%) of participants practice mouth care twice per a day ., The study concluded that nurses' knowledge regarding oral care for critically ill patients in intensive care unit was inadequate , while their practice and attitude is fair.