Community attitudes toward efficacy of standard COVID- 19 preventive measures in Khartoum state

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Mohamed E.O
Ahmed E.A
Gismalla K.A
Bastawi M.A
Khojali E.M
Salih A.E
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Napata College
Background: The emerging COVID-19 is a devastating life-threatening disease, which is characterized by high morbidity, with more than 6 million people worldwide, and a fatality rate ranging between 5-10%. In Sudan, approximately more than 10.000 confirmed cases were reported since the onset of the outbreak. Attitudes and behavior play a major role in preventing the emerging and re-emerging diseases. This study aimed at assessing attitude and behavior of participants towards COVID 19. Materials & Methods: This is a descriptive cross sectional community based study. It was carried out in Khartoum State (Khartoum, Bahri and Omdurman localities). A total of 1200 participants were randomly interviewed face-to-face using close ended questionnaire. A multistage cluster sampling technique was applied. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) Smart PLS was used. Logistic regression, factor analysis and tree analysis were performed. Results: Negative attitude was reported in greater than half of the participants[(52.7%,n=632,(95% 𝐶𝐼, 49.9% − 55.5%)],whilst positive attitude [(47.3%, n=568, (95% 𝐶𝐼, 44.5% − 50.1%)].Regarding behavior, more than the half of the participants [(55.3%,n=663,(95%𝐶𝐼,52.5%− 58.1%)]had poor behavior, whereas [(44.7%, n= 537, (95% 𝐶𝐼, 41.9% − 47.5%)] had good behavior. Factor analysis revealed that, three factors explain 56% of change occurring attitudes towards COVID 19 of the surveyed participants which were misconceptions about COVID19, infodemics of COVID19, and negative stereotyping. The spectrum of behavior was noted in response to isolation strategy, anticipated stigma, and enacted stigma (61%). Logistic regression showed that, participants that had a monthly income between 2000-2999 SDG a month were 2.25 times more likely to have negative attitudes towards COVID19 (𝛽 = 0.809,p<0.001,AOR=2.25, 95% C.I.; 1.48 -3.41,). Education was statistically associated with attitudes towards COVID19 (p<0.001). Males were 0.62 less likely to have poor behavior in comparison with females (𝛽=−0.48,p<0.05,AOR=0.62,95%C.I.;0.43-0.89). Participants with a monthly income ranging from 2000-2999 SDG were 2.83 times more likely to have poor behavior towards COVID19 (𝛽=1.04,p<0.001,AOR=2.83,95%C.I.;1.77-4.52). Tree analysis revealed that attitude was the best predictor of behavior towards COVID19. Locality was the best predictor of negative attitude. Conclusion: Behavior and attitude comprised have a potential effect on preventing and controlling COVID19.